Tag: JavaScript

Typescript: What to do when your third party NPM module doesn't have type declarations

As a developer who has probably spent slightly more time doing backend work than front end, and also who's front end work has been more about SPAs than making things look pretty, I really like what TypeScript brings to writing JavaScript. While it's often a nice break from C# to do write some code that doesn't require you to go and define every object there obviously a lot of benefits to do this (otherwise we would just make everything dynamic in C'#). Having file name's show up red in VS Code when there's a type error is a really nice feature.

However if you want to set your compiler options to strict, you will more than likely run into an issue with third part code coming from NPM. In the form of:

Type error: Could not find a declaration file for module MODULE NAME HERE

Here's a screen grab of the compiler error from my build server...

It's offering a nice line of hope by suggesting I run an npm command to add in the types. Sometime this works, but as not everyone feels the need to adopt TypeScript you'll find there's times when it doesn't.

The only solution to this is to write your own.

Type Definitions are stored in the node_modules folder, but as that isn't something you'll want to be adding to source control you'll need another folder. I call mine @types and have it in the root. Within that folder you then need a folder for each module requiring type definitions. The name of each folder should match the module name.

Here's mine:

To make the actual declaration file you'll need to name it index.d.ts and place it in the folder you just created. You can read more about how declaration files should be structured here, however there's an issue with writing a declaration file for a third party module.

1. It's very confusing to work out everything that should go in it

2. It's not your module so it might change

Unless your planning on helping develop the module and create the official type declarations, I suggest an easier option.

Create a file that looks like this:

/// <reference types="node" />

declare module 'module name here';

This is enough to satisfy the compiler. You won't get accurate types for the module, but they would only ever be as good as your interpretation anyway. This will at least unlock the ability for the rest of your application to continue functioning for strict type checking.

Redirecting to login page with AngularJs and .net WebAPI

So here's the scenario, you have a web application which people log into and some of the pages (like a dashboard) contain ajax functionality. Inevitably the users session expires, they return to the window change a filter and nothing happens. In the background, your JavaScript is making http calls to the server which triggers an unauthorised response. The front end has no way to handle this and some errors appear in the JS console.

A few things are actually combining to make life hard for you here. Lets take a look at each in more detail.

WebAPI and the 301 Response

To protect your API's from public access a good solution is to use the Authorize attribute. i.e.

public ActionResult GetDashboardData(int foo)
 // Your api logic here

However chances are your solution also has a login page configured in your web.config so that your regular page controller automatically trigger a 301 response to the login page.

<authentication mode="Forms">
    <forms timeout="30" loginUrl="/account/sign-in/" />

So now what happens, is instead or responding with a 401 Unauthorised response, what's actually returned is a 301 to the login page.

With an AJAX request from a browser you now hit a second issue. The browser is making an XMLHttpRequest. However if that request returns a 301, rather than returning it your JavaScript code to handle, it "helpfully" follows the redirect and returns that to your JavaScript. Which means rather than receiving a 301 redirect status back, your code is getting a 200 Ok.

So to summarise your API was set up to return a 401 Unauthorised, that got turned into a 301 Redirect, which was then followed and turned into a 200 Ok before it gets back to where it was requested from.

To fix this the easiest method is to create are own version of the AuthorizedAttribute which returns a 403 Forbidden for Ajax requests and the regular logic for anything else.

using System;
using System.Web.Mvc;

namespace FooApp
  public class CustomAuthorizeAttribute : AuthorizeAttribute
      protected override void HandleUnauthorizedRequest(AuthorizationContext filterContext)
          if (filterContext.HttpContext.Request.IsAjaxRequest())
              filterContext.Result = new HttpStatusCodeResult(403, "Forbidden");

Now for any Ajax requests a 403 is returned, for everything else the 301 to the login page is returned.

Redirect 403 Responses in AngularJs to the login page

As our Ajax request is being informed about the unauthorised response, it's up to our JavaScript code trigger the redirect in the browser to the login page. What would be really helpful would be to define the redirect logic in one place, rather than adding this logic to every api call in our code.

To do this we can use add an interceptor onto the http provider in angular js. The interceptor will inspect the response error coming back from the XmlHttpRequest and if it has a status of 401, use a window.locator to redirect the user to the login page.

app.factory('httpForbiddenInterceptor', ['$q', 'loginUrl', function ($q, loginUrl) {
  return {
      'responseError': function (rejection) {
          if (rejection.status == 403) {
              window.location = loginUrl;
          return $q.reject(rejection);

app.config(['$httpProvider', function ($httpProvider) {
  $httpProvider.defaults.headers.common['X-Requested-With'] = 'XMLHttpRequest';

You'll notice a line updating the headers. This is to make the IsAjaxRequest() method on the api recognise the request as being Ajax.

Finally you'll also notice the loginUrl being passed into the interceptor. As it's not a great idea to have strings like urls littered around your code, this is using a value recipe to store the url. The code to do this is follows:

app.value('loginUrl', '/account/sign-in?returnurl=/dashboard/');

Two Google Maps Tips

Centre a map on a collection of pins

The basic way to centre a Google Map is to give it co-ordinates of where you want the map to centre. But what if you have a collection of pin/markers and you want to show all of them but don't know beforehand where they will be.

The solution is to create a LatLngBounds object and for each of your pins call the extend method of your bounds object. Once this is done call fitBounds on your map.

var bounds = new google.maps.LatLngBounds();

$.each(mapMarkers(), function(index, value) {


Loading a map in a hidden div

The reason for doing this could be that you have a set of tabs and a non-visible one contains the Google Map. If you instantiate a Google Map when it isn't visible you end up with the smallest map size possible.

One popular solution for this is to only create the map when the tab is being displayed, which is a good option as it means the map is only loaded when it's viewed. However if your using something like Knockout to bind you've views to a model it may not be possible to attach an event to the tab change.

Google Maps actually have an event handler for just this scenario called resize. You simply need to trigger it at the point in which you can size the map.

google.maps.event.trigger(map, 'resize')