Lets compare to .NET
Well recently I've been updating my JS skills again trying out some of the frameworks I hadn't used before, so I thought I'd share some learnings. The good news is as always it's not really as different as it first seems. To take some of the pain out of understanding what all these frameworks are I thought it would be good to try and relate them back to .NET and what the almost equivalent is.
No not actual assembler but what does our code actually compile to. In the .NET world we have CIL (Common Intermediate Language), previously known as MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) that our C#, F#, VB etc all compile down to before then being converted to the correct machine code for where they run.
To render views into HTML, in the ASP.NET world we have Razor, but not just Razor. We also have WebForm, Brail, Bellevue, NDjango (see more here), it just happens that we mostly just use Razor.
I see the equivalents of these being ReactJS, VueJS and Angular. Its not an exact match as they also aren't exact equivalents or each other, but they're largely your functionality that will take a model and turn it into HTML.
Web Application Framework
The problem with the name framework is it applies to basically anything, but this is what I'm going with for describing ASP.NET MVC/ASP.NET Razor Pages/Web Forms, you know all those things built on-top of .NET that make it a website rather than a desktop app. They do things like routing, organising our files into controller and view folders, know how to respond to http requests etc.
Here we have Next.js, Nuxt.js and maybe Gatsby. The link between these and View Engine is a bit stronger than the ASP.NET MVC world as you essentially have a one to one mapping Next.js -> React, Nuxt.js -> Vue but they are what adds routing, static site generation and organization to your code.
Lower Level Framework
Now this one could be wrong :)
In .NET we have different version of the framework. e.g. .NET Framework /3.5/4, .NET Core, .NET 5, Mono. On the front end side they have Node.
In .NET we have choices including C#, F#, VB among other.
Not so daunting